Background removal with RMBG v1.4 and OpenVINO

This Jupyter notebook can be launched after a local installation only.


Background matting is the process of accurately estimating the foreground object in images and videos. It is a very important technique in image and video editing applications, particularly in film production for creating visual effects. In case of image segmentation, we segment the image into foreground and background by labeling the pixels. Image segmentation generates a binary image, in which a pixel either belongs to foreground or background. However, Image Matting is different from the image segmentation, wherein some pixels may belong to foreground as well as background, such pixels are called partial or mixed pixels. In order to fully separate the foreground from the background in an image, accurate estimation of the alpha values for partial or mixed pixels is necessary.

RMBG v1.4 is background removal model, designed to effectively separate foreground from background in a range of categories and image types. This model has been trained on a carefully selected dataset, which includes: general stock images, e-commerce, gaming, and advertising content, making it suitable for commercial use cases powering enterprise content creation at scale. The accuracy, efficiency, and versatility currently rival leading source-available models.

More details about model can be found in model card.

In this tutorial we consider how to convert and run this model using OpenVINO. #### Table of contents:


install required dependencies

%pip install -q torch torchvision pillow huggingface_hub "openvino>=2024.0.0" matplotlib "gradio>=4.15" "transformers>=4.39.1" tqdm --extra-index-url
DEPRECATION: pytorch-lightning 1.6.5 has a non-standard dependency specifier torch>=1.8.*. pip 24.1 will enforce this behaviour change. A possible replacement is to upgrade to a newer version of pytorch-lightning or contact the author to suggest that they release a version with a conforming dependency specifiers. Discussion can be found at
Note: you may need to restart the kernel to use updated packages.

Download model code from HuggingFace hub

from huggingface_hub import hf_hub_download
from pathlib import Path

repo_id = "briaai/RMBG-1.4"

download_files = ["", "example_input.jpg"]

for file_for_downloading in download_files:
    if not Path(file_for_downloading).exists():
        hf_hub_download(repo_id=repo_id, filename=file_for_downloading, local_dir=".")   0%|          | 0.00/980 [00:00<?, ?B/s]
example_input.jpg:   0%|          | 0.00/327k [00:00<?, ?B/s]

Load PyTorch model

For loading model using PyTorch, we should use AutoModelForImageSegmentation.from_pretrained method. Model weights will be downloaded automatically during first model usage. Please, note, it may take some time.

from transformers import AutoModelForImageSegmentation

net = AutoModelForImageSegmentation.from_pretrained("briaai/RMBG-1.4", trust_remote_code=True)
/opt/home/k8sworker/ci-ai/cibuilds/ov-notebook/OVNotebookOps-674/.workspace/scm/ov-notebook/.venv/lib/python3.8/site-packages/huggingface_hub/ FutureWarning: resume_download is deprecated and will be removed in version 1.0.0. Downloads always resume when possible. If you want to force a new download, use force_download=True.

Run PyTorch model inference

preprocess_image function is responsible for preparing input data in model-specific format. postprocess_image function is responsible for postprocessing model output. After postprocessing, generated background mask can be inserted into original image as alpha-channel.

import torch
from PIL import Image
from utilities import preprocess_image, postprocess_image
import numpy as np
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

def visualize_result(orig_img: Image, mask: Image, result_img: Image):
    Helper for results visualization

       orig_img (Image): input image
       mask (Image): background mask
       result_img (Image) output image
      plt.Figure: plot with 3 images for visualization
    titles = ["Original", "Background Mask", "Without background"]
    im_w, im_h = orig_img.size
    is_horizontal = im_h <= im_w
    figsize = (20, 20)
    num_images = 3
    fig, axs = plt.subplots(
        num_images if is_horizontal else 1,
        1 if is_horizontal else num_images,
    list_axes = list(axs.flat)
    for a in list_axes:
    list_axes[1].imshow(np.array(mask), cmap="gray")
    list_axes[0].set_title(titles[0], fontsize=15)
    list_axes[1].set_title(titles[1], fontsize=15)
    list_axes[2].set_title(titles[2], fontsize=15)

    fig.subplots_adjust(wspace=0.01 if is_horizontal else 0.00, hspace=0.01 if is_horizontal else 0.1)
    return fig

im_path = "./example_input.jpg"

# prepare input
model_input_size = [1024, 1024]
orig_im = np.array(
orig_im_size = orig_im.shape[0:2]
image = preprocess_image(orig_im, model_input_size)

# inference
result = net(image)

# post process
result_image = postprocess_image(result[0][0], orig_im_size)

# save result
pil_im = Image.fromarray(result_image)
no_bg_image ="RGBA", pil_im.size, (0, 0, 0, 0))
orig_image =
no_bg_image.paste(orig_image, mask=pil_im)"example_image_no_bg.png")

visualize_result(orig_image, pil_im, no_bg_image);

Convert Model to OpenVINO Intermediate Representation format

OpenVINO supports PyTorch models via conversion to OpenVINO Intermediate Representation (IR). OpenVINO model conversion API should be used for these purposes. ov.convert_model function accepts original PyTorch model instance and example input for tracing and returns ov.Model representing this model in OpenVINO framework. Converted model can be used for saving on disk using ov.save_model function or directly loading on device using core.complie_model.

import openvino as ov

ov_model_path = Path("rmbg-1.4.xml")

if not ov_model_path.exists():
    ov_model = ov.convert_model(net, example_input=image, input=[1, 3, *model_input_size])
    ov.save_model(ov_model, ov_model_path)
/opt/home/k8sworker/ci-ai/cibuilds/ov-notebook/OVNotebookOps-674/.workspace/scm/ov-notebook/.venv/lib/python3.8/site-packages/transformers/ FutureWarning: _is_quantized_training_enabled is going to be deprecated in transformers 4.39.0. Please use model.hf_quantizer.is_trainable instead

Run OpenVINO model inference

After finishing conversion, we can compile converted model and run it using OpenVINO on specified device. For selection inference device, please use dropdown list below:

import ipywidgets as widgets

core = ov.Core()

device = widgets.Dropdown(
    options=core.available_devices + ["AUTO"],

Dropdown(description='Device:', index=1, options=('CPU', 'AUTO'), value='AUTO')

Let’s run model on the same image that we used before for launching PyTorch model. OpenVINO model input and output is fully compatible with original pre- and postprocessing steps, it means that we can reuse them.

ov_compiled_model = core.compile_model(ov_model_path, device.value)

result = ov_compiled_model(image)[0]

# post process
result_image = postprocess_image(torch.from_numpy(result), orig_im_size)

# save result
pil_im = Image.fromarray(result_image)
no_bg_image ="RGBA", pil_im.size, (0, 0, 0, 0))
orig_image =
no_bg_image.paste(orig_image, mask=pil_im)"example_image_no_bg.png")

visualize_result(orig_image, pil_im, no_bg_image);

Interactive demo

import gradio as gr

title = "# RMBG background removal with OpenVINO"

def get_background_mask(model, image):
    return model(image)[0]

with gr.Blocks() as demo:

    with gr.Row():
        input_image = gr.Image(label="Input Image", type="numpy")
        background_image = gr.Image(label="Background removal Image")
    submit = gr.Button("Submit")

    def on_submit(image):
        original_image = image.copy()

        h, w = image.shape[:2]
        image = preprocess_image(original_image, model_input_size)

        mask = get_background_mask(ov_compiled_model, image)
        result_image = postprocess_image(torch.from_numpy(mask), (h, w))
        pil_im = Image.fromarray(result_image)
        orig_img = Image.fromarray(original_image)
        no_bg_image ="RGBA", pil_im.size, (0, 0, 0, 0))
        no_bg_image.paste(orig_img, mask=pil_im)

        return no_bg_image, inputs=[input_image], outputs=[background_image])
    examples = gr.Examples(

if __name__ == "__main__":
    except Exception:
        demo.launch(share=True, debug=False)
# if you are launching remotely, specify server_name and server_port
# demo.launch(server_name='your server name', server_port='server port in int')
# Read more in the docs:
Running on local URL:

To create a public link, set share=True in launch().