[LEGACY] Graph Traversal and Modification#


The code described here has been deprecated! Do not use it to avoid working with a legacy solution. It will be kept for some time to ensure backwards compatibility, but you should not use it in contemporary applications.

This guide describes a deprecated TensorFlow conversion method. The guide on the new and recommended method, using a new frontend, can be found in the Frontend Extensions article.

There are three APIs for a graph traversal and transformation used in the Model Optimizer:

1. The API provided with the networkx Python library for the networkx.MultiDiGraph class, which is the base class for the mo.graph.graph.Graph object. For example, the following methods belong to this API level:

  • graph.add_edges_from([list]),

  • graph.add_node(x, attrs),

  • graph.out_edges(node_id)

  • other methods where graph is a an instance of the networkx.MultiDiGraph class.

This is the lowest-level API. Avoid using it in the Model Optimizer transformations. For more details, refer to the Model Representation in Memory section.

2. The API built around the mo.graph.graph.Node class. The Node class is the primary class to work with graph nodes and their attributes. Examples of such methods and functions are:

  • node.in_node(y),

  • node.out_node(x),

  • node.get_outputs(),

  • node.insert_node_after(n1, y),

  • create_edge(n1, n2)

There are some “Node” class methods not recommended for use and some functions defined in the mo.graph.graph have been deprecated. For more details, refer to the mo/graph/graph.py file.

3. The high-level API called Model Optimizer Graph API, which uses mo.graph.graph.Graph, mo.graph.port.Port and mo.graph.connection.Connection classes. For example, the following methods belong to this API level:

  • node.in_port(x),

  • node.out_port(y),

  • port.get_connection(),

  • connection.get_source(),

  • connection.set_destination(dest_port)

This is the recommended API for the Model Optimizer transformations and operations implementation.

The main benefit of using the Model Optimizer Graph API is that it hides some internal implementation details (the fact that the graph contains data nodes), provides API to perform safe and predictable graph manipulations, and adds operation semantic to the graph. This is achieved with introduction of concepts of ports and connections.


This article is dedicated to the Model Optimizer Graph API only and does not cover other two non-recommended APIs.


An operation semantic describes how many inputs and outputs the operation has. For example, Parameter and Const operations have no inputs and have one output, ReLU operation has one input and one output, Split operation has 2 inputs and a variable number of outputs depending on the value of the attribute num_splits.

Each operation node in the graph (an instance of the Node class) has 0 or more input and output ports (instances of the mo.graph.port.Port class). The Port object has several attributes:

  • node - the instance of the Node object the port belongs to.

  • idx - the port number. Input and output ports are numbered independently, starting from 0. Thus,

ReLU operation has one input port (with index 0) and one output port (with index 0). * type - the type of the port. Could be equal to either "in" or "out". * data - the object that should be used to get attributes of the corresponding data node. This object has methods get_shape() / set_shape() and get_value() / set_value() to get/set shape/value of the corresponding data node. For example, in_port.data.get_shape() returns an input shape of a tensor connected to input port in_port (in_port.type == 'in'), out_port.data.get_value() returns a value of a tensor produced from output port out_port (out_port.type == 'out').


Functions get_shape() and get_value() return None until the partial inference phase. For more information about model conversion phases, refer to the Model Conversion Pipeline. For information about partial inference phase, see the Partial Inference.

There are several methods of the Node class to get the instance of a corresponding port:

  • in_port(x) and out_port(x) to get the input/output port with number x.

  • in_ports() and out_ports() to get a dictionary, where key is a port number and the value is the corresponding input/output port.

Attributes in_ports_count and out_ports_count of the Op class instance define default number of input and output ports to be created for the Node. However, additional input/output ports can be added using methods add_input_port() and add_output_port(). Port also can be removed, using the delete_input_port() and delete_output_port() methods.

The Port class is just an abstraction that works with edges incoming/outgoing to/from a specific Node instance. For example, output port with idx = 1 corresponds to the outgoing edge of a node with an attribute out = 1, the input port with idx = 2 corresponds to the incoming edge of a node with an attribute in = 2.

Consider the example of a graph part with 4 operation nodes “Op1”, “Op2”, “Op3”, and “Op4” and a number of data nodes depicted with light green boxes.


Operation nodes have input ports (yellow squares) and output ports (light purple squares). Input port may not be connected. For example, the input port 2 of node Op1 does not have incoming edge, while output port always has an associated data node (after the partial inference when the data nodes are added to the graph), which may have no consumers.

Ports can be used to traverse a graph. The method get_source() of an input port returns an output port producing the tensor consumed by the input port. It is important that the method works the same during front, middle and back phases of a model conversion even though the graph structure changes (there are no data nodes in the graph during the front phase).

Let’s assume that there are 4 instances of Node object op1, op2, op3, and op4 corresponding to nodes Op1, Op2, Op3, and Op4, respectively. The result of op2.in_port(0).get_source() and op4.in_port(1).get_source() is the same object op1.out_port(1) of type Port.

The method get_destination() of an output port returns the input port of the node consuming this tensor. If there are multiple consumers of this tensor, the error is raised. The method get_destinations() of an output port returns a list of input ports consuming the tensor.

The method disconnect() removes a node incoming edge corresponding to the specific input port. The method removes several edges if it is applied during the front phase for a node output port connected with multiple nodes.

The method port.connect(another_port) connects output port port and input port another_port. The method handles situations when the graph contains data nodes (middle and back phases) and does not create an edge between two nodes but also automatically creates data node or reuses existing data node. If the method is used during the front phase and data nodes do not exist, the method creates edge and properly sets in and out edge attributes.

For example, applying the following two methods to the graph above will result in the graph depicted below:



For a full list of available methods, refer to the Node class implementation in the mo/graph/graph.py and Port class implementation in the mo/graph/port.py files.


Connection is a concept introduced to easily and reliably perform graph modifications. Connection corresponds to a link between a source output port with one or more destination input ports or a link between a destination input port and source output port producing data. So each port is connected with one or more ports with help of a connection. Model Optimizer uses the mo.graph.connection.Connection class to represent a connection.

There is only one get_connection() method of the Port class to get the instance of the corresponding Connection object. If the port is not connected, the returned value is None.

For example, the op3.out_port(0).get_connection() method returns a Connection object encapsulating edges from node Op3 to data node data_3_0 and two edges from data node data_3_0 to two ports of the node Op4.

The Connection class provides methods to get source and destination(s) ports the connection corresponds to:

  • connection.get_source() - returns an output Port object producing the tensor.

  • connection.get_destinations() - returns a list of input Port consuming the data.

  • connection.get_destination() - returns a single input Port consuming the data. If there are multiple consumers, the exception is raised.

The Connection class provides methods to modify a graph by changing a source or destination(s) of a connection. For example, the function call op3.out_port(0).get_connection().set_source(op1.out_port(0)) changes source port of edges consuming data from port op3.out_port(0) to op1.out_port(0). The transformed graph from the sample above is depicted below:


Another example is the connection.set_destination(dest_port) method. It disconnects dest_port and all input ports to which the connection is currently connected and connects the connection source port to dest_port.

Note that connection works seamlessly during front, middle, and back phases and hides the fact that the graph structure is different.


For a full list of available methods, refer to the Connection class implementation in the mo/graph/connection.py file.

Additional Resources#