[DEPRECATED] The LowLatency Transformation

The deprecated LowLatency transformation changes the structure of the network containing TensorIterator and Loop operations by adding the ability to work with the state, inserting the Assign / ReadValue layers, as shown in the picture below.


After applying the transformation, ReadValue operations can receive other operations as an input, as shown in the picture above. These inputs should set the initial value for initialization of ReadValue operations. However, such initialization is not supported in the current State API implementation. Input values are ignored and the initial values for the ReadValue operations are set to 0 unless otherwise specified by the user via State API.

Steps to Apply LowLatency

  1. Get CNNNetwork. Either way is acceptable:

  2. Reshape the CNNNetwork network if necessary.

    An example of such a necessary case is when the sequence_lengths dimension of input > 1, and it means that TensorIterator layer will have number_iterations> 1. The inputs of the network should be reshaped to set sequence_dimension to exactly 1.

    Usually, the following exception, which occurs after applying a transform when trying to infer the network in a plugin, indicates the need to apply the reshape feature: C++ exception with description "Function is incorrect. The Assign and ReadValue operations must be used in pairs in the network." This means that there are several pairs of Assign / ReadValue operations with the same variable_id in the network and operations were inserted into each iteration of the TensorIterator.

    // Network before reshape: Parameter (name: X, shape: [2 (sequence_lengths), 1, 16]) -> TensorIterator (num_iteration = 2, axis = 0) -> ...
    cnnNetwork.reshape({"X" : {1, 1, 16});
    // Network after reshape: Parameter (name: X, shape: [1 (sequence_lengths), 1, 16]) -> TensorIterator (num_iteration = 1, axis = 0) -> ...
  3. Apply the LowLatency transformation.

    #include "ie_transformations.hpp"

    State naming rule : A name of a state is a concatenation of names: original TensorIterator operation, parameter of the body, and additional suffix variable_ + id (0-base indexing, new indexing for each TensorIterator). Use these rules to predict the name of the inserted state after the transformation is applied. For example:

    // Precondition in ngraph::function.
    // Created TensorIterator and Parameter in body of TensorIterator with names
    std::string tensor_iterator_name = "TI_name"
    std::string body_parameter_name = "param_name"
    std::string idx = "0"; // it's a first variable in the network
    // The State will be named "TI_name/param_name/variable_0"
    auto state_name = tensor_iterator_name + "//" + body_parameter_name + "//" + "variable_" + idx;
    InferenceEngine::CNNNetwork cnnNetwork = InferenceEngine::CNNNetwork{function};
    InferenceEngine::ExecutableNetwork executableNetwork = core->LoadNetwork(/\*cnnNetwork, targetDevice, configuration\*/);
    // Try to find the Variable by name
    auto states = executableNetwork.QueryState();
    for (auto& state : states) {
       auto name = state.GetName();
       if (name == state_name) {
          // some actions
  4. Use state API. See the OpenVINO state API and the Example of stateful network inference sections.

Known Limitations for the LowLatency

  1. Parameters connected directly to ReadValues (states) after the transformation is applied are not allowed.

    Unnecessary parameters may remain on the graph after applying the transformation. The automatic handling of this case inside the transformation is currently not possible. Such parameters should be removed manually from ngraph::Function or replaced with a constant.


    Current solutions:

    • Replace a parameter with a constant (freeze) with the [0, 0, 0 0] value via ModelOptimizer CLI : the --input or --freeze_placeholder_with_value parameters.

    • Use nGraph API to replace a parameter with a constant, as shown in the example below:

      // nGraph example. How to replace Parameter with Constant.
      auto func = cnnNetwork.getFunction();
      // Creating the new Constant with zero values.
      auto new_const = std::make_shared<ngraph::opset6::Constant>( /\*type, shape, std::vector with zeros\*/ );
      for (const auto& param : func->get_parameters()) {
          // Trying to find the problematic Constant by name.
          if (param->get_friendly_name() == "param_name") {
              // Replacing the problematic Param with a Constant.
              ngraph::replace_node(param, new_const);
              // Removing problematic Parameter from ngraph::function
  2. Unable to execute reshape precondition to apply the transformation correctly.

    Networks can be non-reshapable. The most common reason is that the value of shapes is hardcoded in the constant somewhere in the network.


    Current solutions:

    • Trim non-reshapable layers via ModelOptimizer CLI : the --input and --output parameters. For example, the parameter and the problematic constant (as shown in the picture above) can be trimmed using the --input Reshape_layer_name command-line option.

    • Use nGraph API to replace the problematic constant, as shown in the example below:

      // nGraph example. How to replace a Constant with hardcoded values of shapes in the network with another one with the new values.
      // Assume we know which Constant (const_with_hardcoded_shape) prevents the reshape from being applied.
      // Then we can find this Constant by name on the network and replace it with a new one with the correct shape.
      auto func = cnnNetwork.getFunction();
      // Creating the new Constant with a correct shape.
      // For the example shown in the picture above, the new values of the Constant should be 1, 1, 10 instead of 1, 49, 10
      auto new_const = std::make_shared<ngraph::opset6::Constant>( /\*type, shape, value_with_correct_shape\*/ );
      for (const auto& node : func->get_ops()) {
          // Trying to find the problematic Constant by name.
          if (node->get_friendly_name() == "name_of_non_reshapable_const") {
              auto const_with_hardcoded_shape = std::dynamic_pointer_cast<ngraph::opset6::Constant>(node);
              // Replacing the problematic Constant with a new one. Do this for all the problematic Constants in the network, then
              // you can apply the reshape feature.
              ngraph::replace_node(const_with_hardcoded_shape, new_const);